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1. Ecological studies on Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.

Al-Kahtani MA, Youssef AM, Fathi AA.

Department of Biology, College of Science, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al-Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. Regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. These species include two submerged aquatic plants (Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.). The common distributed species are Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trimex Steud and Cyperus rotundus (L.). On the other hand, a total of 20 algal genera were recorded with 7 genera of Chlorophyceae, 8 of Bacillariophyceae, 4 of Cyanophyceae and one of Euglenophyceae. The common phytoplankton occurred in all three investigated sites were Chlorella vulgaris, Mougeotia sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Actinastrum sp. Regarding to the biotic fauna, different forms of unicellular zooplankton such as Paramecium and Amoeba were recorded. Invertebrates such as freshwater insects and some freshwater snails were documented in the study sites including Melanodies tuberculata, Melanopsis praemorsa and Lymnaea auricularia. As regard to vertebrates, one species of fish, Aphanius dispar, dominate the spring basin and its extended channels.

PMID: 19090280 [PubMed - in process]

2. Fructose-amino acid conjugate and other constituents from Cyperus rotundus L.

Sayed HM, Mohamed MH, Farag SF, Mohamed GA, Omobuwajo OR, Proksch P.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmacognosy Department, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Further phytochemical study on the aerial parts of Cyperus rotundus L. led to the isolation of a fructose-amino acid conjugate, N-(1-deoxy-alpha-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-tryptophan (16) and its tautomers, in addition to n-butyl-beta-D-fructopyranoside (1), ethyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (2), adenosine (3), (-)-(E)-caffeoylmalic acid (4), vitexin (5), isovitexin (6), orientin (7), epiorientin (8), myricetin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (9), luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside-6''-methyl ester (10), chlorogenic acid (11), luteolin 4'-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (12), luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (13), uridine (14) and ellagic acid (15). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Additionally, antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of some of the isolated phenolic compounds were carried out.

PMID: 19023813 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3. Heavy metals in water, sediments and wetland plants in an aquatic ecosystem of tropical industrial region, India.

Rai PK.

Forest Ecology Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, School of Earth Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Mizoram University, Tanhril, Aizawl, 796001, India, prabhatrai24@yahoo.co.in.

Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn, Hg, Ni, and Cd) and macronutrients (Mn) were measured in industrial effluents, water, bottom sediments, and wetland plants from a reservoir, Govind Ballabh (G.B.) Pant Sagar, in Singrauli Industrial region, India. The discharge point of a thermal power plant, a coal mine, and chlor-alkali effluent into the G.B. Pant Sagar were selected as sampling sites with one reference site in order to compare the findings. The concentrations of heavy metals in filtered water, sieved sediment samples (0.4-63 mum), and wetland plants were determined with particle-induced X-ray emission. The collected plants were Aponogeton natans, L. Engl. & Krause, Cyperus rotundus, L., Hydrilla verticillata, (L.f.) Royle, Ipomoea aquatica, Forssk., Marsilea quadrifolia, L., Potamogeton pectinatus, L., Eichhornia crassipes, (Mart.) Solms Monogr., Lemna minor, L., Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Linnaea, Azolla pinnata, R.Br., Vallisneria spiralis, L., and Polygonum amphibium, L. In general, metal concentration showed a significant positive correlation between industrial effluent, lake water, and lake sediment (p < 0.01). Likewise, significant positive correlation was recorded with metals concentration in plants and lake ambient, which further indicated the potential of aforesaid set of wetland macrophytes for pollution monitoring.

PMID: 18998227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

4. Norcyperone, a novel skeleton norsesquiterpene from Cyperus rotundus L.

Xu Y, Zhang HW, Yu CY, Lu Y, Chang Y, Zou ZM.

Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, PR China.

A novel norsesquiterpene, named norcyperone (1), and three known compounds: (-)-clovane-2,9-diol (2), rosenonolactone (3), and 5 alpha,8 alpha-epidioxy-(20S,22E,24R)-ergosta-6,22-dien-3beta-ol (4) were isolated from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus L. The structure of 1 was elucidated as 8,11,11-trimethylbicyclo[5.3.1]undecane-5 alpha, 8 alpha-epoxy-3-one on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS experiments, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This is the first report of a 8,11,11-trimethyl- bicyclo[5.3.1]undecane-3-one type norsesquiterpene with a tetrahydrofuran ring at C-5 and C-8.

Publication Types:PMID: 18923338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of the tubers infusion and extracts of Cyperus rotundus.

Kilani S, Ben Sghaier M, Limem I, Bouhlel I, Boubaker J, Bhouri W, Skandrani I, Neffatti A, Ben Ammar R, Dijoux-Franca MG, Ghedira K, Chekir-Ghedira L.

Unité de Pharmacognosie/Biologie Moléculaire 99/UR/07-03, Faculty of Pharmacy of Monastir, 5000 Monastir, Tunisia.

The in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and apoptotic activities from tubers extracts of Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) were investigated. Antibacterial activity of different extracts was evaluated against five bacterial reference strains. A marked inhibitory effect was observed against Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis with total oligomers flavonoids (TOFs) and ethyl acetate extracts. In addition to their antibacterial activity, the same extracts showed a significant ability to inhibit nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical in a non-enzymatic superoxide generating system. Apoptosis, a highly organized physiological mechanism to eliminate injured or abnormal cells, is also implicated in multistage carcinogenesis. It was observed that TOF and ethyl acetate extracts suppressed growth and proliferation of L1210 cells derived from murine lymphoblastic leukaemia. Morphological features of treated cells and characteristic DNA fragmentation revealed that the cytotoxicity was due to induction of apoptosis. This study confirms that TOF and ethyl acetate extracts of C.rotundus possess antibacterial and antioxidant properties and provoke DNA fragmentation, a sign of induction of apoptosis. These results were correlated with chemical composition of the tested extracts.

Publication Types: PMID: 18538563 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6. Ethnoveterinary practices for the treatment of parasitic diseases in livestock in Cholistan desert (Pakistan).

Farooq Z, Iqbal Z, Mushtaq S, Muhammad G, Iqbal MZ, Arshad M.

Department of Zoology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan. zafaruaf@yahoo.com

AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was conducted to document the ethnoveterinary medicinal (EVM) practices for the treatment of different parasitic diseases of livestock in Cholistan desert, Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An initial reconnaissance survey (rapid rural appraisal) among the local shepherds was conducted to identify the traditional healers. Information was collected from the traditional healers using a well-structured questionnaire through open-ended interviews and guided dialogue technique. RESULTS: The parasitic diseases reported in livestock were: tick and lice infestation, mange, myiasis and helminthiasis. A total of 77 ethnoveterinary practices comprising of 49 based on plant usage and 28 based on dairy products, chemicals and other organic matter were documented. A total of 18 plant species representing 14 families were documented to treat the parasitic diseases. The plants included: Aerva javanica (Amaranthaceae), Aizoon carariense (Aizoaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Brassica campestris (Cruciferae), Capparis decidua (Capparaceae), Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae), Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae), Calligonum polygonoides (Polygonaceae), Eruca sativa (Cruciferae), Ferula assafoetida (Umbelliferae), Haloxylon salicornicum (Chenopodiaceae), Mallotus philippinensis (Euphorbiaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae), Pinus roxburghii (Pinaceae), Salsola baryosma (Chenopodiaceae), Solanum surratens (Solanaceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae). CONCLUSION: The EVM practices documented in this study need to be validated using standard parasitological procedures. Issues that should be addressed are efficacy (vis-à-vis claims made by the respondents), quality, safety and standardization of doses.

Publication Types: PMID: 18524514 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7. Adaptation to Flooding in Upland and Lowland Ecotypes of Cyperus rotundus, a Troublesome Sedge Weed of Rice: Tuber Morphology and Carbohydrate Metabolism.

Peña-Fronteras JT, Villalobos MC, Baltazar AM, Merca FE, Ismail AM, Johnson DE.

University of the Philippines Mindanao, Davao City, Philippines.

Background and aims In recent years, Cyperus rotundus has become a problem weed in lowland rice (Oryza sativa) grown in rotation with vegetables in the Philippines. As the growth of C. rotundus is commonly suppressed by prolonged flooding, the ability of the weed to grow vigorously in flooded as well as upland conditions suggests that adapted ecotypes occur in these rotations. Studies were conducted to elucidate the mechanisms that permit C. rotundus to tolerate flooded soil conditions. Methods Upland and lowland ecotypes of C. rotundus were compared in terms of growth habit, carbohydrate reserves and metabolism, and activities of enzymes involved in alcoholic fermentation - alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC). Key Results The lowland ecotype has much larger tubers than the upland ecotype. Prior to germination, the amylase activity and total non-structural carbohydrate content in the form of soluble sugars were greater in the tubers of lowland plants than in those of upland C. rotundus. At 24 h after germination in hypoxic conditions, PDC and ADH activities in the lowland plants increased, before decreasing at 48 h following germination. In contrast, ADH and PDC activities in the upland plants increased from 24 to 48 h after germination. Conclusions Tolerance of lowland C. rotundus of flooding may be attributed to large carbohydrate content and amylase activity, and the ability to maintain high levels of soluble sugars in the tubers during germination and early growth. This is coupled with the modulation of ADH and PDC activities during germination, possibly to control the use of carbohydrate reserves and sustain substrate supply in order to avoid starvation and death of seedlings with prolonged flooding.

PMID: 18515404 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

8. Comparative study of Cyperus rotundus essential oil by a modified GC/MS analysis method. Evaluation of its antioxidant, cytotoxic, and apoptotic effects.

Kilani S, Ledauphin J, Bouhlel I, Ben Sghaier M, Boubaker J, Skandrani I, Mosrati R, Ghedira K, Barillier D, Chekir-Ghedira L.

Unité de Pharmacognosie/Biologie Moléculaire 99/UR/07-03, Faculty of Pharmacy, Monastir 5000, Tunisia.

Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), using both electron impact (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) detection modes on apolar and polar stationary phases, led to the determination of the volatile composition of the essential oil obtained from tubers of Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae). In this study, more than 33 compounds were identified and then compared with the results obtained in our previous work. Cyperene, alpha-cyperone, isolongifolen-5-one, rotundene, and cyperorotundene were the principal compounds comprising 62% of the oil. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay with MTT indicated that this oil was very effective against L1210 leukaemia cells line. This result correlates with significantly increased apoptotic DNA fragmentation. The oxidative effects of the essential oil were evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), xanthine/xanthine oxidase assays, and the scavenging of superoxide radical assay generated by photo-reduction of riboflavin. The antimutagenic activity of essential oil has been examined by following the inhibition of H(2)O(2) UV photolysis which induced strand-break formation in pBS plasmid DNA scission assay. Based on all these results, it is concluded that C. rotundus essential-oil composition established by GC/MS analysis, in EI- and CI-MS modes, presents a variety of a chemical composition we were not able to detect with only GC/MS analysis in our previous work. This essential oil exhibited antioxidant, cytotoxic, and apoptotic properties.

Publication Types: PMID: 18493959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on invasive plants: comparison of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L. and C. esculentus L.).

Rogers HH, Runion GB, Prior SA, Price AJ, Torbert HA, Gjerstad DH.

USDA-ARS National Soil Dynamics Lab, Auburn, AL 36832, USA. hrogers@ars.usda.gov

The rise in atmospheric CO(2) concentration coupled with its direct, often positive, effect on the growth of plants raises the question of the response of invasive plants to elevated atmospheric CO(2) levels. Response of two invasive weeds [purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.)] to CO(2) enrichment was tested. Plants were exposed to ambient (375 micromol mol(-1)) or elevated CO(2) (ambient + 200 micromol mol(-1)) for 71 d in open top chambers. Photosynthetic rate did not differ between CO(2) treatments for either species. Conductance was lower in purple nutsedge and tended to be lower in yellow nutsedge. Purple nutsedge had higher instantaneous water use efficiency; a similar trend was noted for yellow nutsedge. Purple nutsedge had greater leaf area, root length and numbers of tubers and tended to have more tillers under high CO(2). In yellow nutsedge, only tuber number increased under CO(2) enrichment. Leaf dry weight was greater for both species when grown under elevated CO(2). Only purple nutsedge made seed heads; CO(2) level did not change seed head dry weight. Root dry weight increased under the high CO(2) treatment for purple nutsedge only, but tuber dry weight increased for both. Total dry weight of both species increased at elevated CO(2). Purple nutsedge (under elevated CO(2)) tended to increase allocation belowground, which led to greater root-to-shoot ratio (R:S); R:S of yellow nutsedge was unaffected by CO(2) enrichment. Findings suggest both species, purple more than yellow nutsedge, may be more invasive in a future high-CO(2) world.

Publication Types: PMID: 18268302 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10. Antifatigue effect of Rubus coreanus Miquel extract in mice.

Jung KA, Han D, Kwon EK, Lee CH, Kim YE.

Department of Practical Arts Education, Chuncheon National University of Education, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.

The antifatigue properties of six Korean medicinal herb extracts were studied by evaluating forced swimming capacity and biochemical parameters in ICR mice. The treatment groups were orally administered 30% ethanolic extracts (500 mg/kg/day) of Rubus coreanus Miquel, Cyperus rotundus Linn., Acanthopanax sessiliflorus, Saururus chinensis Baili, Epimedium koreanumNakai, or Houttuynia cordata Thunb. for 4 weeks. Swimming time to exhaustion was found to be longer for the group fed R. coreanus than for the control group (P < .05). No significant differences were found in the plasma levels of either glucose or lactate between the control group and the group fed R. coreanus, which swam longer than the control. The plasma ammonia levels were significantly lower in the groups fed R. coreanus and A. sessiliflorus, when compared to the control group (P < .05). No significant differences were found in gastrocnemius muscle or liver glycogen content between the control group and any treatment group. These results suggest that R. coreanus extract, and none of the other herbs, has antifatigue effects in mice, as demonstrated by the increased forced swimming capacity and decreased plasma ammonia accumulation.

PMID: 18158842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Cyperus rotundus.

Yazdanparast R, Ardestani A.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, The University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. yazdan@ibb.ut.ac.ir

Cyperus rotundus (Family Cyperaceae) is used both as a functional food and as a drug. In this study, the antioxidative potential of a hydroalcoholic extract of C. rotundus (CRE) was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including antioxidant capacity by the phosphomolybdenum method, total antioxidant activity in linoleic acid emulsion systems, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, hydroxyl radicals, and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. We further evaluated the reducing potential of the extract as well as Fe(2+)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate. These various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene, tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid, and catechin. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of CRE was also determined by a colorimetric method. The extract exhibited high reduction capability and powerful free radical scavenging, especially against DPPH and superoxide anions as well as a moderate effect on NO. CRE also showed inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate induced by Fe(2+)/ascorbate and prevented deoxyribose degradation in both non-site-specific and site-specific assays showing the hydroxyl radical scavenging and metal chelating activity of the hydroalcoholic extract. Moreover, the peroxidation inhibiting activity of CRE was demonstrated in the linoleic acid emulsion system. These results clearly established the antioxidative potency of C. rotundus, which may account for some of the medical claims attributed to this plant.

Publication Types: PMID: 18158839 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12. Cyperus rotundus suppresses AGE formation and protein oxidation in a model of fructose-mediated protein glycoxidation.

Ardestani A, Yazdanparast R.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, P.O. Box 13145-1384, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Non-enzymatic glycation, as the chain reaction between reducing sugars and the free amino groups of proteins, has been shown to correlate with severity of diabetes and its complications. Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) is used both as a food to promote health and as a drug to treat certain diseases. In this study, considering the antioxidative effects of C. rotundus, we examined whether C. rotundus also protects against protein oxidation and glycoxidation. The protein glycation inhibitory activity of hydroalcoholic extract of C. rotundus was evaluated in vitro using a model of fructose-mediated protein glycoxidation. The C. rotundus extract with glycation inhibitory activity also demonstrated antioxidant activity when a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays as well as metal chelating activity were applied. Fructose (100mM) increased fluorescence intensity of glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) in terms of total AGEs during 14 days of exposure. Moreover, fructose caused more protein carbonyl (PCO) formation and also oxidized thiol groups more in glycated than in native BSA. The extract of C. rotundus at different concentrations (25-250microg/ml) has significantly decreased the formation of AGEs in term of the fluorescence intensity of glycated BSA. Furthermore, we demonstrated the significant effect of C. rotundus extract on preventing oxidative protein damages including effect on PCO formation and thiol oxidation which are believed to form under the glycoxidation process. Our results highlight the protein glycation inhibitory and antioxidant activity of C. rotundus. These results might lead to the possibility of using the plant extract or its purified active components for targeting diabetic complications.

Publication Types: PMID: 17765965 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13. Anticariogenic properties of the extract of Cyperus rotundus.

Yu HH, Lee DH, Seo SJ, You YO.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, South Korea.

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is known as the causative bacteria in the formation of dental plaque and dental caries. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of Cyperus rotundus (C. rotundus) tuber extract on the growth, acid production, adhesion, and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of S. mutans. The growth and acid production were reduced by the extract of C. rotundus in a dose dependent manner. The extract of C. rotundus markedly inhibited the adherence of S. mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (HAs). The adherence was repressed by more than 50% at the concentration of 0.5 mg/ml of the extract and complete inhibition was observed at the concentration of 4 mg/ml of the extract. On the activity of glucosyltransferase (GTFase) which synthesizes water-insoluble glucan from sucrose, the extract of C. rotundus showed more than 10% inhibition at a concentration of 2 mg/ml. These results suggest that C. rotundus may inhibit cariogenic properties of S. mutans. Further studies are necessary to clarify the active constituents of C. rotundus responsible for such biomolecular activities.

Publication Types: PMID: 17597508 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14. Biomonitoring of heavy metals by pollen in urban environment.

Kalbande DM, Dhadse SN, Chaudhari PR, Wate SR.

Environmental Impact and Risk Assessment Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nahru Marg, Nagpur, Maharashtra, 440020, India.

Abstract Industrial development and consumption of petroleum products leads to increase air pollution levels especially in urban and industrial areas. Heavy metal components associated with air pollutants have far reaching effects with respect to economic and ecological importance of pollens. The pollens are male reproductive organs of the plant and travel through air from flower to flower for pollination purpose. During this period they are exposed to air pollutants. Present investigation thus pertains to study of effect of air pollutants on pollens especially biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. The pollens of three commonly occurring plants namely Cassia siamea, Cyperus rotundus, Kigelia pinnata have been studied from the NH-6 of Nagpur city, India. The pollens exposed to polluted air showed the presence of higher concentrations of Ca, Al and Fe as compared to unexposed pollens. Higher concentration of these metals was observed in Cyperus rotundus followed by Cassia siamea and Kigelia pinnata. These results indicate that pollens act as good indicator of air pollution giving results in short time of exposure of 5-10 h. Apart from this, it is also reported that some of these metals play crucial role in the metabolic activity in pollens for example Calcium is necessary for growth of pollen tube and other metabolic activities in pollens. The presence of these metals in pollens may also enhance the allergenicity of the pollens. Similarly accumulation of heavy metals may also deteriorate the quality of pollen for their economical use. The viability of pollen is also affected by these pollutants in sensitive species leading to impairment of their fertility.

PMID: 17593535 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15. A new steroid glycoside and furochromones from Cyperus rotundus L.

Sayed HM, Mohamed MH, Farag SF, Mohamed GA, Proksch P.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmacognosy Department, Assiut University. Assiut 71526. Egypt.

Further phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Cyperus rotundus L. afforded a new steroid glycoside named sitosteryl (6'-hentriacontanoyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (4) in addition to three furochromones, khellin (2), visnagin (3) and ammiol (9). Furthermore, benzo-alpha-pyrone (coumarin) (1), salicylic acid (5), caffeic acid (6), protocatechuic acid (7), p-coumaric acid (8), tricin (10) and isorhamnetin (11) were isolated. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic methods. The isolated furochromones were tested for insect antifeedant activity against larvae Spodoptera littoralis when incorporated in artificial diet and offered to larvae in a chronic feeding bioassay. Also, visnagin, khellin and sitosteryl (6'-hentriacontanoyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside showed strong cytotoxic activity against L5178y mouse lymphoma cells and were also active in the brine shrimp lethality test.

PMID: 17479423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16. Administration of Cyperus rotundus tubers extract prevents weight gain in obese Zucker rats.

Lemaure B, Touché A, Zbinden I, Moulin J, Courtois D, Macé K, Darimont C.

Nestlé Research Center, 101 Avenue Gustave Eiffel, BP 49716, 37390 Tours cedex 2, France.

Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae; C. rotundus) is an Indian medicinal plant demonstrated to exert multiple health benefits. The purpose of the present study was to test the biological efficacy of C. rotundus tubers extract on weight control in obese Zucker rats. It was demonstrated that administration of 45 or 220 mg/kg/day of C. rotundus tubers hexane extract for 60 days in Zucker rats induced a significant reduction in weight gain without affecting food consumption or inducing toxicity. In vitro, 250 microg/mL of this extract was able to stimulate lipolysis in 3T3-F442 adipocytes suggesting that this medicinal plant contains activators of beta-adrenoreceptors (AR). The binding assay performed on the rat beta3-AR isoform, known to induce thermogenesis, demonstrated that C. rotundus tubers extract can consistently and effectively bind to this receptor. These data suggest that the effect on weight gain exerted by C. rotundus tubers extract may be mediated, at least partially, through the activation of the beta3-AR. In conclusion, C. rotundus tubers extract prove to be a new herbal supplement for controlling body weight preferentially in beta3-AR sensitive species. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 17444573 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17. Cyperus rotundus extract inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity from animal and plants as well as inhibits germination and seedling growth in wheat and tomato.

Sharma R, Gupta R.

Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India.

Cyperus rotundus (nutgrass) is the world's worst invasive weed through tubers. Its success in dominating natural habitats depends on its ability to prevent herbivory, and to kill or suppress other plants growing in its vicinity. The present study was done to investigate whether chemicals in nutgrass target neuronal and non-neuronal acetylcholinesterases to affect surrounding animals and plants respectively. Methanolic extract of tubers of nutgrass strongly inhibited activity of AChE from electric eel, wheat and tomato. It also inhibited seed germination and seedling growth in wheat and tomato. Our results suggest that inhibitor of AChE in nutgrass possibly acts as agent of plant's war against (a) herbivore animals, and (b) other plants trying to grow in the same habitat. An antiAChE from nutgrass has been purified by employing chromatography and crystallization. The structural determination of the purified inhibitor is in progress.

Publication Types: PMID: 17367818 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18.Optimization and comparison of three methods for extraction of volatile compounds from Cyperus rotundus evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Tam CU, Yang FQ, Zhang QW, Guan J, Li SP.

Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau SAR, China.

The essential oil of Cyperus rotundus has multiple pharmacological activities. Therefore, the extraction with high yield and quality is very important for preparation of essential oil of C. rotundus. In this paper, three methods, namely hydrodistillation (HD), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), for extraction of volatile compounds from C. rotundus were optimized and compared by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among eight identified compounds in C. rotundus, five components including alpha-copaene, cyperene, beta-selinene, beta-cyperone and alpha-cyperone were quantitatively determined or estimated using alpha-cyperone as standard, which showed that PLE had the highest extraction efficiency, while SFE had the best selectivity for extraction of beta-cyperone and alpha-cyperone. The contents of ingredients from C. rotundus extracted with HD, PLE and SFE are significantly different, which suggest that comparison of chemical components and pharmacological activities of different extracts is helpful to elucidate the active components in C. rotundus and control its quality.

Publication Types: PMID: 17127024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19. Antidiabetic activity of hydro-ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus in alloxan induced diabetes in rats.

Raut NA, Gaikwad NJ.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, R. T. M. Nagpur University Campus, Amravati Road, Nagpur-440 033, India. rnishi@sify.com

In light of the traditional claim of Cyperus rotundus in the treatment of diabetes, investigations were carried out to evaluate its effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemia in rats. Oral daily administration of 500 mg/kg of the extract (once a day for seven consecutive days) significantly lowered the blood glucose levels. This antihyperglycemic activity can be attributed to its antioxidant activity as it showed the strong DPPH radical scavenging action in vitro.

PMID: 17056202 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20. Inhibitory effects of selected Thai medicinal plants on Na+,K+-ATPase.

Ngamrojanavanich N, Manakit S, Pornpakakul S, Petsom A.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. nnattaya@chula.ac.th

Extracts of ten Thai indigenous medicinal plants having ethnomedical application in the treatment of dysuria were tested for their Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activity. The hexane extracts of Cyperus rotundus and Orthosiphon aristatus showed high potent inhibitory activity on crude enzyme Na(+),K(+)-ATPase from rat brain.

Publication Types: PMID: 16860494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Cyperus rotundus.

Uddin SJ, Mondal K, Shilpi JA, Rahman MT.

Pharmacy Discipline, Life Science School, Khulna University, Bangladesh. uddinsj@yahoo.com

The methanol extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizome, given orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w., showed significant antidiarrhoeal activity in castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. Among the fractions, tested at 250 mg/kg, the petroleum ether fraction (PEF) and residual methanol fraction (RMF) were found to retain the activity, the latter being more active as compared to the control. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) did not show any antidiarrhoeal activity.

PMID: 16376024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22. Antioxidant activity of a salt-spice-herbal mixture against free radical induction.

Natarajan KS, Narasimhan M, Shanmugasundaram KR, Shanmugasundaram ER.

ALMPG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai 600113, India.

A combination of spices (Piper nigrum, Piper longum and Zingiber officinale), herbs (Cyperus rotundus and Plumbago zeylanica) and salts make up Amrita Bindu. The study was focused to evaluate the antioxidant property of individual ingredients in Amrita Bindu against the free radical 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS). The analysis revealed the antioxidant potential of the ingredients in the following order: Piper nigrum>Piper longum>Cyperus rotundus>Plumbago zeylanca>Zingiber officinale. Two different experiments were designed. In experiment I, rats were fed with normal diet whereas in experiment II rats were given feed mixed with Amrita Bindu for 3 weeks (4 g/kg of feed). Rats from both experimental groups were challenged against a single intraperitonial injection of phenylhydrazine (PHZ) (7.5 mg/kg body weight). At the end of 24 and 72 h, blood was analysed for free radicals and antioxidant levels. It was interesting to note that rats with Amrita Bindu pretreatment showed significantly lower levels of free radicals, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls along with significantly higher levels of antioxidants when compared with rats without Amrita Bindu pretreatment on PHZ administration. These results reveal that Amrita Bindu, a salt-spice-herbal mixture exerts a promising antioxidant potential against free radical induced oxidative damage.

PMID: 16337350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23. Claviceps cyperi, a new cause of severe ergotism in dairy cattle consuming maize silage and teff hay contaminated with ergotised Cyperus esculentus (nut sedge) on the Highveld of South Africa.

Naudè TW, Botha CJ, Vorster JH, Roux C, Van der Linde EJ, Van der Walt SI, Rottinghaus GE, Van Jaarsveld L, Lawrence AN.

Division of Toxicology, ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa. theuns.naude@up.ac.za

During December/January 1996/97 typical summer syndrome (hyperthermia and a 30% drop in milk yield) occurred in succession in two Holstein dairy herds (n=240 and n=150 milking cows, respectively) on the South African Highveld. These farms are situated in the midst of the prime maize and dairy farming areas of South Africa where this condition had never been diagnosed before. The individual components of the concentrate on both farms were negative for ergot alkaloids. Endophytic fungi and/or ergot infestation of teff and other grasses fed to the cows were then suspected of being involved, but neither endophytes nor ergot alkaloids could be implicated from these sources. By measuring the serum prolactin levels of groups of sheep (n=5) fed the first farm's total mixed ration (TMR) or its three individual fibre components for a period of 11 days, the source of the ergot alkaloids was identified. A statistically significant decrease in the level of this hormone occurred only in the group on maize silage (which constituted 28% on dry matter base of the TMR). The involvement of the maize silage was further chemically confirmed by the high levels of total ergot alkaloids, predominantly ergocryptine, found by LC-MS in the silage as well as in the TMR (115-975 ppb and 65-300 ppb, respectively). The ergot alkaloid content (mainly ergocryptine) of the maize silage on the second affected farm was 875 ppb. Withdrawal of contaminated silage resulted in gradual recovery of stock on both farms. Nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus and Cyperus rotundus of the family Cyperaceae) has a world-wide distribution and is a common weed in annual crops, and can be parasitized by Claviceps cyperi. Careful examination of the maize silage from both farms revealed that it was heavily contaminated with nut sedge and that it contained minute sclerotia, identified as those of Claviceps cyperi, originating from the latter. Nut sedge was abundant on both farms and it is believed that late seasonal rain had resulted in mature, heavily ergotised nut sedge being cut with the silage. Claviceps cyperi sclerotia, collected on the affected fields in the following autumn contained 3600-4000 ppm ergocryptine. That the dominant alkaloid produced by this particular fungus was indeed ergocryptine, was confirmed by negative ion chemical ionization MS/MS. In one further outbreak in another Holstein herd, teff hay contaminated with ergotised nut sedge and containing 1200 ppb alkaloids, was incriminated as the cause of the condition. This is the first report of bovine ergotism not associated with the Poaceae infected with Claviceps purpureum or endophytes but with the family Cyperaceae and this particular fungal phytopathogen.

PMID: 15991703 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24.Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

Duarte MC, Figueira GM, Sartoratto A, Rehder VL, Delarmelina C.

Research Center for Chemistry, Biology and Agriculture, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6171, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil. mduarte@cpqba.unicamp.br

Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol.

Publication Types: PMID: 15707770 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25. Population dynamics of weeds in no-tillage and conventional crop systems.

Machado AF, Jakelaitis A, Ferreira LR, Agnes EL, Santos LD.

Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa--UFV, Viçosa, MG, Brazil. aroldomachado@yahoo.com.br

Population dynamics of weeds in successive maize and bean crops were evaluated in two soil management systems (conventional and no-tillage), for two maize applications (grain and silage), and in four consecutive growing seasons. Every year, conventional tillage consisted in plowing and harrowing before sowing. In no-tillage, chemical weed desiccation was made with the mixture glyphosate + 2.4-D. To control weeds, the mixture fluazifop-p-butil + fomesafen was applied on the bean crop in all the planting seasons, and the herbicides nicosulfuron + atrazine on maize after crop emergence (1998--1999, 1999--2000, 2001--2002) and atrazine + metolachlor before emergence (2000--2001). Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) was the most important species under conventional soil tillage; while in no-tillage the dicotyledonous weed species (Amaranthus deflexus, Bidens pilosa, Euphorbia heterophylla, Galinsoga parviflora Ipomoea grandifolia) were the most relevant. Regardless of the maize use, the C. rotundus population and tuber bank, with prevailingly dormant tubers, was considerably reduced in no-tillage compared with the conventional system.

PMID: 15656169 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26.Effects of plant densities and management of purple nutsedge on sugarcane yield and effect of growth stages and main way of herbicides contact and absorption on the control of tubers.

Durigan JC.

Departamento de Fitossanidade, FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil. jdurigan@fcav.unesp.br

Field experiments carried out with Cyperus rotundus L. at low (58-246), medium (318-773), and high (675-1198 shoots/m2) densities showed sugarcane yield reductions of 13.5, 29.3, and 45.2%, respectively in relation to the control. In the second field experiment, the integration of a mechanic method with two sequences of plowing and disking operations in the dry season, and complementary applications of trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametrine and sulfentrazone (rainy season) was studied. Average of the chain connected to original shoot showed 92, 95, and 65% of reduction with trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametrine and surfactant, at the application stages "early," preflowering, and full flowering, respectively.

PMID: 15656168 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27.The occurrence and allergising potential of airborne pollen in West Bengal, India.

Boral D, Chatterjee S, Bhattacharya K.

Department of Botany, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731235, West Bengal, India.

A continuous 2-year volumetric aerobiological survey was conducted in Berhampore town, a centrally located and representative part of West Bengal, India. The aim of the study was to assess the allergising potential of airborne pollen grains of West Bengal. A total of 31 pollen types were identified of which Poaceae (grasses) pollen showed maximum frequency, followed by Cyperaceae, Cassia sp., Acacia auriculiformis, etc. The seasonal periodicities of the pollen types and their relationship to meteorological conditions were investigated. It was found that the pollen concentration is positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Clinical investigations by skin prick test were carried out to detect allergenicity of pollen types. Eighteen common airborne pollen types induced positive responses of which pollen extracts of Saccharum officinarum (grass), Azadirachta indica, Cocos nucifera, Phoenix sylvestris, Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus citriodora showed strongest sensitising potential. This result is consistent with previous investigations in different parts of West Bengal.

Publication Types: PMID: 15236497 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28. Effect of polyherbal formulation on experimental models of inflammatory bowel diseases.

Jagtap AG, Shirke SS, Phadke AS.

Department of Pharmacology, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Kalina, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400 098, India.

A polyherbal ayurvedic formulation from an ancient authentic classical text of ayurveda was evaluated for its activity against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The polyherbal formulation contained four different drugs viz., Bilwa (Aegle marmeloes), Dhanyak (Coriandrum sativum), Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and Vala (Vetiveria zinzanioids). The formulation has been tried before in clinical practice and was found to be useful in certain number of cases of IBD (ulcerative colitis), so was tried in the same form i.e., decoction (aqueous extract) in experimental animals to revalidate the claims of the same. The formulation was tried on two different experimental animal models of inflammatory bowel disease, which are acetic acid-induced colitis in mice and indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats. Prednisolone was used as the standard drug for comparison. The formulation showed significant inhibitory activity against inflammatory bowel disease induced in these experimental animal models. The activity was comparable with the standard drug prednisolone. The results obtained established the efficacy of this polyherbal formulation against inflammatory bowel diseases.

Publication TypesPMID: 15013181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


29. Utilization of tigernut (Cyperus rotundus, L.) meal in diets for cockerel starters.

Bamgbose AM, Eruvbetine D, Dada W.

Animal Nutrition Department, University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

The effect of feeding graded levels of tigernut meal (TGN) as a replacement for maize in the diets of cockerel starters on carcass characteristics and economics of feed conversion was assessed for 70 days. Tigernut replaced maize at 0%, 33.33%, 66.67% and 100% levels. A total of 120 day-old chicks were randomly allotted to four experimental diets such that each dietary treatment had three replicates of ten birds. Inclusion of TGN at 33.33% in cockerel diets supported better carcass yield in terms of high plucked, eviscerated, drumstick, thigh, neck, wing, heads, shanks, livers, hearts and lung weights without significant differences (P>0.05) in values obtained. However, there were significant difference (P<0.05) in back, breast, abdominal fat, gizzard, spleen, kidney and intestinal weights and lengths. Inclusion of TGN 100% level significantly depressed parameters assessed. The optimum replacement level of maize with TGN was 33.33% as this gave no significant reduction in carcass yield of the birds but a significant reduction in the cost of feed consumed. It required a feed cost of 42.90 ( 0.31 US dollars) to produce one kilogram weight gain on diet 2 (33.33%). Inclusion of TNG in the diets resulted in feed cost savings of 4.88% (D2), 8.17 (D3) and 8.90% (D4) respectively.

Publication Types: PMID: 12798114 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30.Effect of weed extracts on seedling growth of some varieties of wheat.

Agarwal AR, Gahlot A, Verma R, Rao PB.

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145, Uttaranchal, India.

Allelopathic effect ofAvena fatua L., Cyperus rotundus L., Polygonum hydropiper L., and Solanum nigrum L. were examined on seedling growth of certain commonly used varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Tarai region of U.P. state. The weed extracts inhibited the length of plumule in all the varieties (100%) with Solanum and it was in 12 (92%), 10 (77%) and 06 (46%) varieties with Polygonum, Avena and Cyperus, respectively. In radicle length, it was in 92% with both Polygonum and Solanum; and 85% and 69% of the varieties with Avena and Cyperus, respectively. However, all the four weed extracts reduced the dry weight of plumule, radicle and total seedling in all the varieties (100%) of wheat except in HD--2329 with Cyperus, in which it was positive. The percent reduction (percentage of control) was more than 50% in 92%, 77%, 54% and 39% of the varieties, respectively with Solanum, Polygonum, Avena and Cyperus. Among the weed extracts, the inhibitory effect on seedling growth in different varieties followed the order: Solanum > Polygonum > Avena and > Cyperus. On the basis of the present results, UP--2003 and WH--542 followed by PBW--226, Sangam and HD--248 were more susceptible to all the four weed extracts compared to the rest of the varieties of wheat.

Publication Types: PMID: 12617313 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31. Studies on exudate-depleted sclerotial development in Sclerotium rolfsii and the effect of oxalic acid, sclerotial exudate, and culture filtrate on phenolic acid induction in chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

Singh UP, Sarma BK, Singh DP, Bahadur A.

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. ups@banaras.ernet.in

Exudate depletion from developing sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. in culture caused reduced size and weight of sclerotia. Germination of exudate-depleted sclerotia was delayed on Cyperus rotundus rhizome meal agar medium when compared with that of control sclerotia. The exudate-depleted sclerotia caused infection in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) plants in a glasshouse. Different temperatures and incubation periods had no effect on the germination ability of the exudate-depleted sclerotia. Oxalic acid, sclerotial exudate, and culture filtrate of S. rolfsii induced the synthesis of phenolic acids, including gallic, ferulic, chlorogenic, and cinnamic acids, as well as salicylic acid, in treated chickpea leaves. Gallic acid content was increased in treated leaves compared with the untreated controls. Maximum induction of gallic acid was seen in both leaves treated with oxalic acid followed by exudate and leaves treated with culture filtrate. Cinnamic and salicylic acids were not induced in exudate-treated leaves. Ethyl acetate fractionation indicated that the sclerotial exudates consisted of gallic, oxalic, ferulic, chlorogenic, and cinnamic acids, whereas the culture filtrate consisted of gallic, oxalic, and cinnamic acids along with many other unidentified compounds.

Publication Types: PMID: 12109884 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32. Modulation of radioligand binding to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex by a new component from Cyperus rotundus.

Ha JH, Lee KY, Choi HC, Cho J, Kang BS, Lim JC, Lee DU.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Taegu, Korea.

Four sesquiterpenes, beta-selinene, isocurcumenol, nootkatone and aristolone and one triterpene, oleanolic acid were isolated from the ethylacetate fraction of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus and tested for their ability to modulate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A))-benzodiazepine receptor function by radioligand binding assays using rat cerebrocortical membranes. Among these compounds, only isocurcumenol, one of the newly identified constituents of this plant, was found to inhibit [3H]Ro15-1788 binding and enhance [3H]flunitrazepam binding in the presence of GABA. These results suggest that isocurcumenol may serve as a benzodiazepine receptor agonist and allosterically modulate GABAergic neurotransmission via enhancement of endogenous receptor ligand binding.

Publication Types: PMID: 11824542 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34.Chemical study of the essential oil of Cyperus rotundus.

Sonwa MM, König WA.

Institut für Organische Chemie, Universität Hamburg, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany.

Minor constituents of the essential oil of Cyperus rotundus have been investigated. The three new sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (-)-isorotundene, (-)-cypera-2,4(15)-diene, (-)-norrotundene and the ketone (+)-cyperadione were isolated and their structures elucidated. The absolute configuration of (-)-rotundene was derived by chemical correlation and enantioselective gas chromatography.

Publication Types:PMID: 11672746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35.Inhibitory effects of methanol extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes on nitric oxide and superoxide productions by murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells.

Seo WG, Pae HO, Oh GS, Chai KY, Kwon TO, Yun YG, Kim NY, Chung HT.

Department of Microbiology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, 570-749, Chonbuk, South Korea.

The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (C. rotundus) have been used in oriental traditional medicines for the treatment of stomach and bowel disorders, and inflammatory diseases. Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2-) are important mediators in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. This study was undertaken to address whether the metanol (MeOH) extract of rhizomes of C. rotundus could modulate NO and O2- productions by murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. The MeOH extract of rhizomes of C. rotundus showed the inhibition of NO production in a dose-dependent manner by RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with interferon-gamma plus lipopolysaccharide. The inhibition of NO production by the extract was due to the suppression of iNOS protein, as well as iNOS mRNA expression, determined by Western and Northern blotting analyses, respectively. In addition, the MeOH extract suppressed the production of O2- by phorbol ester-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Collectively, these results suggest that the MeOH extract of rhizomes of C. rotundus could be developed as anti-inflammatory candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases mediated by overproduction of NO and O2-.

Publication Types: PMID: 11378282 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36.Diuretic effects of selected Thai indigenous medicinal plants in rats.

Sripanidkulchai B, Wongpanich V, Laupattarakasem P, Suwansaksri J, Jirakulsomchok D.

Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, 40002, Khon Kaen, Thailand. bungorn@kkul.kku.ac.th

Extracts of five indigenous Thai medicinal having ethnomedical application in the treatment of dysuria were investigated for their diuretic activity. Root extracts of Ananas comosus and Carica papaya, given orally to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, demonstrated significantly increased urine output (P < 0.01) which was 79 and 74%, respectively, of the effect of an equivalent dose of hydrochlorothiazide. Both plant extracts gave similar profiles of urinary electrolyte excretion to that of the hydrochlorothiazide. The analyses of the urinary osmolality and electrolyte excretion per unit time suggest the observed effect of A. comosus was intrinsic, whereas that of C. papaya may have resulted from a high salt content of this extract. However, our experimental evidence on the diuretic activities of the other three plants did not parallel their local utilization for dysuria. It was found that the rhizome of Imperata cylindrica apparently inhibited the urination of rats whereas the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus and the stem of Averrhoa carambola failed to demonstrate any diuretic activities. These results indicate that two of the plants investigated exert their action by causing diuresis. The other three plants need further investigation to determine their effectiveness in the treatment of dysuria.

Publication Types:PMID: 11297849 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37.Molecular markers for the characterization of Brazilian Cercospora caricis isolates.

Inglis PW, Teixeira EA, Ribeiro DM, Valadares-Inglis MC, Tigano MS, Mello SC.

EMBRAPA Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, CENARGEN, Brasília, Brazil. peter@cenargen.embrapa.br

Cercospora caricis is of interest as a potential mycoherbicide for control of purple nutsedge, Cyperus rotundus, which is considered to be the world's worst weed. The genetic variation of a collection of Brazilian Ce. caricis isolated from Cy. rotundus was analyzed by using RAPD, RFLP with a telomeric probe, [TTAGGG]18 and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of the ribosomal RNA gene. The Brazilian isolates were also compared with a Ce. caricis isolate from Florida, USA and with some other Cercospora species. A cluster of isolates from the Brazilian cerrado region was identified showing high genetic similarity. In contrast, isolates originating in other geographic regions of Brazil were less than 50% and 25% related to the former group according to similarity estimates produced from RAPD and telomeric RFLP analyses respectively. ITS sequence analysis did not support taxonomic division of the Brazilian strains, but did confirm the distant relatedness of these strains to the Ce. caricis isolate from Florida. The data indicate a need for an extensive molecular survey of Cercospora species associated with the Cyperaceae.

Publication Types: PMID: 11270654 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38.The ameliorating effects of the cognitive-enhancing Chinese herbs on scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats.

Hsieh MT, Peng WH, Wu CR, Wang WH.

Institute of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences, China Medical College, Taiwan, R.O.C. rei106@tcts1.seed.net.tw

Ameliorating effects were investigated of the cognitive-enhancing Chinese herbs administered orally for 1 week-Panax ginseng (PG), Panax notoginseng (PNG), Dioscorea opposita (DO), Gastrodia elata (GE), Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), Acorus gramineus (AG), Coptis chinensis (CC), Polygonum multiflorum (PM), Cyperus rotundus (CR) and Psoralea corylifolia (PC)-on the scopolamine (SCOP)-induced amnesia by using a passive avoidance task in rats. Of ten Chinese herbs, only PG, PNG, GE and CC prolonged the SCOP-shortened STL. These results revealed that PG, PNG GE and CC administered orally for 1 week improved the SCOP-induced learning and memory deficit in rats. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 10925408 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39.Rotundines A-C, three novel sesquiterpene alkaloids from Cyperus rotundus.

Jeong SJ, Miyamoto T, Inagaki M, Kim YC, Higuchi R.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Rotundines A (1), B (2), and C (3), three novel sesquiterpene alkaloids with an unprecedented carbon skeleton, were isolated from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus. The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by spectral and chemical methods.

PMID: 10843585 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40. Antimalarial sesquiterpenes from tubers of Cyperus rotundus: structure of 10,12-peroxycalamenene, a sesquiterpene endoperoxide.

Thebtaranonth C, Thebtaranonth Y, Wanauppathamkul S, Yuthavong Y.

National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok, Thailand.

Activity-guided investigation of Cyperus rotundus tubers led to the isolation of patchoulenone, caryophyllene alpha-oxide, 10,12-peroxycalamenene and 4,7-dimethyl-1-tetralone. The antimalarial activities of these compounds are in the range of EC50 10(-4)-10(-6) M, with the novel endoperoxide sesquiterpene, 10,12-peroxycalamenene, exhibiting the strongest effect at EC50 2.33 x 10(-6) M.

Publication Types: PMID: 7546546 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41.[Effects of the combination of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. (AM), Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (TAS), Cyperus rotundus L. (CR), Ligusticum chuangxiong Hort (LC) and Peaonìa veitchii lynch (PV) on the hemorheological changes in "blood stagnating" rats]

[Article in Chinese]

Xue JX, Yan YQ, Jiang Y.

Institute of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing.

The "blood stagnating" rat model was built with adrenaline and cold stimulation. Its hemorrheological character was an increase in the viscosity, thickness and liability to coagulate. The experimental result showed that AM and TAS could decrease the whole blood specific viscosity, but at the same time increase the plasma specific viscosity. The qi-regulating drug CR and two blood-activating drugs LC and PV could improve the hemorrheological changes in "blood stagnating" rats. The combination of qi-regulating drugs and blood-activating drugs had more favorable effect.

Publication Types: PMID: 8011132 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42. [Effects of the combination of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. (AM), tail of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. (TAS), Cyperus rotundus L. (CR), Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (LC) and Paeonia veitchii Lynch (PV) on the hemorrheological changes in normal rats]

[Article in Chinese]

Xue JX, Jiang Y, Yan YQ.

Institute of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing.

The results showed that AM and TAS had significant effects of enriching the blood. CR, a Qi-regulating drug, LC and PV, two blood-activating drugs, could improve all hemorrheological indexes, such as the whole blood specific viscosity, the plasma specific viscosity, erythrocyte electrophoresis, etc. The combination of Qi-regulating drug and blood-activating drug displayed more favorable effect. This experiment has provided some pharmacological evidence for the theory of "Qi Xue Xiang Guan" (correlation of vital energy with blood circulation) in traditional Chinese medicine.

Publication Types: PMID: 8003220 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43. [Studies on the medicinal plant in the "Sambutsu-cho" of Higo Province possessed by the Kumamoto clan (II): on the medicina herbs]

[Article in Japanese]

Hamada T.

Kumamoto Institute of Technology.

In the previous report, I studied the medicinal trees contained in the Sambutsu-cho of the Kumamoto clan in Higo Province. In this report, I studied the medicinal herbs contained in the same book. There were 439 names in the herbal part. I identified 214 species and found 129 species as the medicinal plants. The ratio of the medicinal plants was 60%. the famous medicinal plants were as follows: Atractilodes japonica, platycodon grandiflorum, prunella vulgaris var. lilacina, pharbitis nil, cnidium officinale, angelica acutiloba, bplerum falcatum, pueraria lobata, sophora flavescens, sinomenium acutum, akebia quinata, paeonia lactiflora, paeonia suffruticosa, achyranthes fauriei, houttuynia cordata, ophiopogon japonica, pinellia ternata and cyperus rotundus.

Publication Types: PMID: 11639722 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

44. [Treatment of intestinal metaplasia and atypical hyperplasia of gastric mucosa with xiao wei yan powder]

[Article in Chinese]

Liu XR, Han WQ, Sun DR.

Qingdao TCM-WM Hospital.

138 cases of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and 104 cases of atypical hyperplasia (AH) of the gastric mucosa of chronic gastritis treated with Xiao Wei Yan Powder (XWYP) were reported. The diagnoses were based on the pathological examination of gastric antrum biopsy specimens. The cases were randomly divided into treated group and control group. The XWYP contained Smilax glabrae, Hedyotis diffusae, Taraxacum mongolicum, Caesalpinia sappan, Paeonia alba, Cyperus rotundus, Bletilla striata, Glycyrrhiza uralensis etc., and was prepared in powder form, taken orally 5-7g tid. After 2-4 months of administration, gastroscopic and pathological examinations were repeated. Results: In treated group, the total effective rate of IM was 91.3% and that of the AH was 92.16%, while in control group, they were 21.3% and 14.46% respectively (P < 0.01). It denoated that XWYP had marked therapeutic effects for IM and AH. The animal experiments revealed no toxic effect, so safety guarantee was provided for its clinical application.

Publication Types: PMID: 1302542 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45 Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. IV. Bioconcentration of mercury in in situ aquatic and terrestrial plants at Ganjam, India.

Lenka M, Panda KK, Panda BB.

Department of Botany, Berhampur University, India.

In situ aquatic and terrestrial plants including a few vegetable and crop plants growing in and around a chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India were analyzed for concentrations of root and shoot mercury. The aquatic plants found to bioconcentrate mercury to different degrees included Marsilea spp., Spirodela polyrhiza, Jussiea repens, Paspalum scrobiculatam, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Hygrophila schulli, Monochoria hastata and Bacopa monniera. Among wild terrestrial plants Chloris barbata, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus and Croton bonplandianum were found growing on heavily contaminated soil containing mercury as high as 557 mg/kg. Analysis of mercury in root and shoot of these plants in relation to the mercury levels in soil indicated a significant correlation between soil and plant mercury with the exception of C. bonplandianum. Furthermore, the tolerance to mercury toxicity was highest with C. barbata followed by C. dactylon and C. rotundus, in that order. The rice plants analyzed from the surrounding agricultural fields did not show any significant levels of bioconcentrated mercury. Of the different vegetables grown in a contaminated kitchen garden with mercury level at 8.91 mg/kg, the two leafy vegetables, namely cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and amaranthus (Amaranthus oleraceous), were found to bioconcentrate mercury at statistically significant levels. The overall study indicates that the mercury pollution is very much localized to the specific sites in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant.

Publication Types: PMID: 1536599 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

46.[Studies on the medicinal plant in the "Sambutsu-cho" of Bungo Province possessed by the Kumamoto Clan (II); studies on the medicinal herbs]

[Article in Japanese]

Hamada T.

Kumamoto Institute of Technology.

In the previous report, I studied the medicinal trees contained in the Sambutsu-cho of the Kumamoto clan in Bungo Province. In this report, I studied the medicinal herbs contained in the same book. There were 259 names in the herbal part. I identified 156 species and found 103 species as the medicinal plants. The ratio of the medicinal plants was 66%. The famous medicinal plants were as follows: Atractilodes japonica, Platycodon gradiflorum, Mentha arvensis var. piperascens, Lisospermum erythrorizon, Pharbitis nil, Gentiana scabra var. buergeri, Cnidium officianal, Angelica acutiloba, Bupleurum falcatum, Pueraria lobata, Paeonia lactiflora, Paeonia suffruticosa, Achyranthes fauriei, Asarum dimidiatum, Ophiopogon japonica, Pinellia ternata and Cyperus rotundus.

Publication Types: PMID: 11639706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

47.Antimalarial compounds containing an alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl moiety from Tanzanian medicinal plants.

Weenen H, Nkunya MH, Bray DH, Mwasumbi LB, Kinabo LS, Kilimali VA, Wijnberg JB.

Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Pure compounds were isolated from plant extracts with antimalarial activity. The extracts were obtained from the tubers of Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae), the rootbark of Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild) Waterm. (Rutaceae), and the rootbark of Margaritaria discoidea (Baill.) Webster (Euphorbiaceae). The most active compounds included (IC50 within brackets): alpha-cyperone (1) (5.5 micrograms/ml), N-isobutyldeca-2,4-dienamide (2) (5.4 micrograms/ml), and securinine (3) (5.4 micrograms/ml). A mixture of autoxidation products of beta-selinene was found to be the most active antimalarial substances obtained from C. rotundus (5.6 micrograms/ml.

Publication Types: PMID: 2236290 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

48. Antimalarial activity of Tanzanian medicinal plants.

Weenen H, Nkunya MH, Bray DH, Mwasumbi LB, Kinabo LS, Kilimali VA.

Department of Chemistry, Unversity of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Tanzanian medicinal plants were extracted and tested for in vitro antimalarial activity, using the multidrug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Of 49 plants investigated, extracts of three plants were found to have an IC50 between 5-10 micrograms/ml, extracts of 18 other plants showed an IC50 between 10 and 50 micrograms/ml, all others were less active. The three most active extracts were obtained from the tubers of Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae), the rootbark of Hoslundia opposita Vahl. (Labiatae), and the rootbark of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae).

Publication Types: PMID: 2236289 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49.Differential Cold Tolerance, Starch, Sugar, Protein, and Lipid of Yellow and Purple Nutsedge Tubers.

Stoller EW, Weber EJ.

United States Department of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801.

From measurements of viability after exposure of tubers to natural overwintering in the soil and 6 weeks exposure at 2 C, species cold tolerance of the tubers was ranked in decreasing order: yellow nutsedge ;I' (Cyperus esculentus L.), an ecotype originating in Illinois; yellow nutsedge ;G', an ecotype originating in Georgia; and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.). The ratios of unsaturated-saturated fatty acids in tuber triglycerides, tuber polar lipids, and leaf polar lipids followed the same order as the cold tolerance rankings, with the most cold-hardy species having the highest ratios. Lipid content was less than 1% of dry weight in purple nutsedge tubers, but was from 5 to 7% in both yellow nutsedge tubers. Starch, sugar, and lipid contents increased significantly in the hardy yellow nutsedge ;I' tubers during a 6-week exposure to 2 C, but did not change in the susceptible purple nutsedge tubers; only sugar increased in yellow nutsedge ;G' tubers after this treatment. Protein content was not altered by the 2 C treatment in any of the tubers. Apparently, several factors involving starch, sugar, lipids, and fatty acids are related to the differences in tolerance to cold in these species.

PMID: 16659181 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]PMCID: PMC541723

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